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Lagundi Tea

I. INTRODUCTION

 

What is Lagundi?

 

Lagundi or Vitex negundo is a large shrub native to the Philippines which has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for centuries. It is commonly found in tropical, subtropical and also warm temperate regions throughout the world, especially in the Philippines.

Research on lagundi conducted by the Philippine Department of Health has suggested that the plant has a number of practical uses, and the use of lagundi is actively promoted by the government as a result. Outside of the Philippines, preparations of lagundi are sometimes available at stores which supply herbal medicines, or through practitioners of herbal and alternative medicine.

This plant is native to the swamps of the Philippines, where it can sometimes grow quite tall. It has a single thick, woody stem like a trunk, and the leaves appear palmately, in the form of five pointed leaves which splay out like the fingers of a hand. The leaves, root, flowers, and seeds of lagundi all appear to have medicinal values.

 

 

II. USES

 

The use of five-leaved chaste tree for medicinal purposes has been known for a long time in China, Korea, Japan, Indonesia, Philippines and other Asian countries. Today, pharmaceutical companies in Japan are importing wild vitex negundo from Philippines. The root is reported to be tonic, febrifuge, and expectorant. The root is also used in a great variety of diseases: dyspepsia, colic, rheumatism, worms, boils, and leprosy. The flowers are used in diarrhea, cholera, fever, and diseases of the liver, and are also recommended as a cardiac tonic. The seeds make a cooling medicine for skin diseases and leprosy, and for inflammation of the mouth. The leaves are used as a tea for conditions like coughs and asthma.

Preparations of lagundi have been used for a wide variety of complaints traditionally, although scientific research has concentrated on its use for respiratory complaints. Lagundi is generally accepted in the Philippines to be useful for coughs, asthma symptoms, and other respiratory problems, and the Philippine government actively promotes it as an alternative to Western cough medicines. Some doctors also prescribe lagundi to assist in the treatment of asthma, as regular doses appear to reduce the strength of asthma attacks.

As an analgesic, lagundi also appears to have some efficacy. It has been compared to drugs like aspirin in trials which show that lagundi may be useful in the treatment of things like pain after dental extractions. Some people like to take lagundi before going in for extractions, in an attempt to pre-empt the associated pain and discomfort.

 

Lagundi is prepared by boiling it, steeping it, and then straining it. At home, people make lagundi teas from the leaves, often producing a large amount and bottling the excess to use later. Commercially, lagundi can be purchased in the form of syrup or capsules to make it easier to handle. It is also blended in with cough medicines and other herbal remedies.

As with other herbal medicines, lagundi should not be taken without consulting a doctor, as it may potentially conflict with other medications or it may be contraindicated for a particular condition. If your doctor is resistant to herbal treatments, you may want to seek out a practitioner who supports complementary medicine so that you can get sound advice about whether or not lagundi is safe for you.

Indications/Uses:

Asthma

Cough

Fever

dysentery

Colds & pain in any part of the body

Skin diseases & wounds- dermatitis, scabies, ulcer, eczema

Headache

Rheumatism

Sprain

Confusions

Insect bites

Aromatic bath for sick patients

 

III. PROCEDURE

 

Put one glass of dried leaves or as desired in the pot or frying pan.

Fry the dried leaves until crisp. Frying prevents molds formation.

Crush the fried leaves using mortar and pestle.

The remaining fried leaves will be use for the tea.

Put one tbsp. of fried crushed leaves in the teabags.

Secure the teabags by sewing or staple and put a string.

 

Collection Guidelines:

Collect the healthy leaves or plants 500 m away from polluted area.

Collect on three consecutive sunny days from 7:00AM to 10:00AM.

Temperature, humidity, light and manner of handling during harvests affect the active constituent of plants.

Leaves are best collected when the plant is about to bloom or before the flowers open; and spare some leaves otherwise the plant will die.

 

Processing:

Sorting- remove dirt, impurities and damaged portions.

Washing- most plants are washed to meet the standard cleanliness; clean in a big “batya” or basin.

Slicing- leaves are cut into fine strips, and whole plants into sections.

 

 

 

Storage Guidelines:

 

Maintain the moisture at 10%. This makes the medicinal components concentrated. The dryer the plants the more effective they are. Drying makes the herbs taste more palatable.

Place in a cool dry place and ventilated area to prevent stocks from insects, rodents, and micro-organisms such as fungus.

Materials (plants) rich in volatile oils are to be kept in air light containers away from light brown bottles are preferred to prevent photochemical changes.

Medicinal plants may also be stored in cloth bags or plastics.

If placed in bottles or tin cans, be sure to put charcoal or lime to act as moisture absorbent.

Label the medicinal plants to prevent misuse or mixed-up. Include the date prepared, indications, precautions and contraindications.

Regularly inspect for any growth of moulds or insect in filtration.

Expiration: Once moulds start, the medicinal components are destroyed.

As soon as plants have been collected, dry them immediately to prevent denaturation, decay and fungal attacks.

 

Ways of Drying:

Air drying or shade drying- appropriate for leaves and flowers.

a. Put the wash leaves in the air dryer in a shady area for 3 to 5 days or until completely dry.

b. Crush by using hands to about 2 to 3 mm in size.

 

 

c. Measure 4 tbsp. of crush leaves and place in a plastic container then seal.

d. Label: the name, date prepared, indications, etc. Keep in a cool dry place away from sunlight.

 

 

 

 

 

IV. DOSAGE

 

 

Adults: 1/2 cup, 3 times a day

 

 

Children’s: (Babies) 1 table spoon, every 4 hours

(2-6 yrs.) 1/4 cup, every 4 hours

 

 

(7-12 yrs.) 1/2 cup, every 4 hours

One tea bag can be used 3x within 24 hours.

1 cup of Lagundi infusion 3x a day.

 

 

V. INGREDIENTS and MATERIALS

 

 

Lagundi (Vitex Negundo) tea is made purely from dried mature leaves of lagundi. These leaves are processed into tea form following GMP standards as prescribed by BFAD.

Fried Crushed leaves

Tea bags (hard absorbent paper)

 

(Vitex negundo)

 

Plant Description

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a knotted, thick, beige underground stem (rhizome). The stem extends roughly 12 inches above ground with long, narrow, ribbed, green leaves, and white or yellowish-green flowers.

Chemical Composition

The major constituents in Zingiber officinale are the pungent vanilloids, [6]-gingerol and [6]-paradol.  Ginger contains two other phenolic compounds, shogaols and zingerone in addition to [6]-gingerol.  High amounts of iron (54–62 mg/100 g) and calcium (1.0%–1.5%) are found in ginger rhizomes.  The antioxidant, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory pharmacologic effects of ginger are mainly due to its pungent constituents (e.g., [6]-gingerol).

Ginger is now cultivated around the world for the root. Ginger has a unique odor and taste: aromatic and pungent. Ginger has two known active constituents, gingerols and gingerdione. Ginger is a traditional oriental medicine.

The medicinal part of ginger is the rhizome, an underground stem that most people mistakenly refer to as a root. In Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine, the rhizome has a long-standing reputation as a digestive aid. It is ground up and used in numerous Chinese herbal prescriptions. Ayurvedic practitioners refer to ginger as the universal medicine because it aids the body’s digestive function by relieving gas, bloating, and cramps, says Joseph Selvester, an Ayurvedic herbalist in Gainesville, Florida.

Ginger powder is produced from ginger, cultivated by a small group of committed, marginal farmers who have been traditionally growing ginger. Ginger is commonly used as a spice in cooking, specially in India and China.

Medicinal Uses and Indications

Ginger root is widely used as a digestive aid for mild stomach upset and is commonly recommended by health care professionals to help prevent or treat nausea and vomiting associated with motion sickness, pregnancy, and cancer chemotherapy. Ginger is used as support in inflammatory conditions such as arthritis, and may even be used in heart disease or cancer.

Motion Sickness

Several studies suggest that ginger may be more effective than placebo in reducing symptoms associated with motion sickness. In one trial of 80 novice sailors (prone to motion sickness), those who took powdered ginger experienced a significant reduction in vomiting and cold sweating compared to those who took placebo. Similar results were found in a study with healthy volunteers. While these results are promising, other studies suggest that ginger is not as effective as medications in reducing symptoms associated with motion sickness. In a small study of volunteers who were given ginger (fresh root and powder form), scopolamine (a medication commonly prescribed for motion sickness), or placebo, those receiving the medication experienced significantly fewer symptoms compared to those who received ginger.

Conventional prescription and non-prescription medicines that decrease nausea may also cause unwanted side effects, such as dry mouth and drowsiness. Given the safety of ginger, many people find it a welcome alternative to these medications to relieve their motion sickness.

Pregnancy Related Nausea and Vomiting

A limited number of human studies suggests that 1 gram daily of ginger may be safe and effective for pregnancy-associated nausea and vomiting when used for short periods (no longer than 4 days). Several studies have found that ginger is more effective than placebo in relieving nausea and vomiting associated with pregnancy. In a small study including 30 pregnant women with severe vomiting, those who ingested 1 gram of ginger every day for four days reported more relief from vomiting than those who received placebo. In a larger study including 70 pregnant women with nausea and vomiting, those who received a similar dosage of ginger felt less nauseous and experienced fewer vomiting episodes than those who received placebo.

Chemotherapy nausea

There is evidence from a few studies that suggests ginger reduces the severity and duration of nausea (but not vomiting) during chemotherapy. Long-term studies should be performed to confirm these results and to establish safety.

Nausea and vomiting following surgery

Research has produced mixed results regarding the use of ginger in the treatment of nausea and vomiting following surgery. In two studies, 1 gram of ginger root before surgery reduced nausea as effectively as a leading medication. In one of these two studies, women who received ginger also required fewer nausea-relieving medications following surgery. Other studies, however, have failed to find the same positive effects. In fact, one study found that ginger may actually increase vomiting following surgery.

Inflammation

In addition to providing relief from nausea and vomiting, ginger extract has long been used in traditional medical practices to decrease inflammation. In fact, many health care professionals today use ginger to help treat health problems associated with inflammation, such as arthritis and ulcerative colitis. In a study of 261 people with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, those who received a ginger extract twice daily experienced less pain and required fewer pain-killing medications compared to those who received placebo. Although there have also been a few other studies of the benefit of ginger for arthritis, one trial found that the herb was no more effective than ibuprofen or placebo in reducing symptoms of OA.

 

Other uses

  • Although it is much too early to tell if this will benefit those with heart disease, a few preliminary studies suggest that ginger may lower cholesterol and prevent the blood from clotting. Each of these effects may protect the blood vessels from blockage and the damaging effects of blockage such as atherosclerosis, which can lead to a heart attack or stroke.
  • Laboratory studies have also found that components in ginger may have anticancer activity. More research needs to be performed to determine the effects of ginger on various cancers in humans.

·         Prepare Spice tea and ginger tea

·         Prepare pulse and lentil curries

·         Prepare snack, when pickled in vinegar

·         Health benefits of ginger:

·          Acts as a stimulant and carminative

·         Decreases joint pain from arthritis

·         Stimulates  the secretion of saliva

Dosage

Pediatric

Ginger should not be used by children under 2 years of age.

Ginger may be used by children over 2 years of age to treat nausea, digestive cramping, and headaches. Adjust the recommended adult dose to account for the child’s weight. Most herbal dosages for adults are calculated on the basis of a 150 lb (70 kg) adult. Therefore, if the child weighs 50 lb (20 – 25 kg), the appropriate dose of ginger for this child would be 1/3 of the adult dosage.

Adult

In general, ginger intake should not exceed 4 grams in one day (this includes the ginger obtained through diet such as from ginger ale, ginger snaps, and ginger bread). Usually, food sources contain no more than 0.5% ginger.

Standardized dose: Take 75 – 2,000 mg in divided doses with food, standardized to contain 4% volatile oils or 5% total pungent compounds including 6-gingerol or 6-shogaol.

For nausea, gas, or indigestion: 2 – 4 grams of fresh root daily (0.25 – 1.0 g of powdered root) or 1.5 – 3.0 mL (30 – 90 drops) liquid extract daily. To prevent vomiting, take 1 gram of powdered ginger (1/2 tsp) or its equivalent, every 4 hours as needed (not to exceed 4 doses daily), or 2 ginger capsules (1 gram), 3 times daily. You may also chew a 1/4 oz piece of fresh ginger when needed.

To relieve arthritis pain: Take fresh ginger juice, extract, or tea, 2 – 4 grams daily. Topical ginger oil may also be rubbed into a painful joint. Fresh ginger root may also be placed in a warm poultice or compress and apply to painful areas.

For cold and flu symptoms, sore throat, headache and menstrual cramps: Steep 2 tbsp of freshly shredded ginger in hot water, 2 – 3 times daily. A drop of ginger oil or a few slices of fresh rhizome may also be placed in steaming water and inhaled.

Procedure

  1. Clean the ginger and peel off the skin.
  2. Grate ginger.
  3. Squeeze the juice out of the grated ginger using a cheesecloth.
  4. Mix 1 cup of the ginger juice with 1 cup white sugar.
  5. Heat on high heat until it boils with constant stirring.
  6. Set at low fire with continuous stirring until the mixture turns into powder.
  7. Let cool before transferring to a clean container and seal.
  8. For a fine product finish, grind the powder with the use of a coffee grinder. (optional)

 

 

 

Akapulko
Cassia alata Linn.
RINGWORM BUSH

 

 Other scientific names 

Herpetic alata Raf. 

Common names

Adadisi (Ting.) 

Akapulko (Sul., Tag.)

Ancharasi (Ig.)

Andadisi (Ilk.)

Andadasi-a-dadakdel (Ilk.)

Amdadasi-ñg-bugbugtong (Ilk.)

Andalan (Sul.)

Bayabasin (Tag.)

Bikas-bikas (Tag.)

Buni-buni (Bag.)

Gamotsa-buni (Tag.)

Kapurko (Tag.)

Kapis (Sub.)

Katanda (Tag.)

Kasitas (Bik., Bis.)

Pakagonkon (Tag.)

Pakayomkom-kastila (Pamp.)

Palo-china (Bis.)

Sunting (C. Bis.)

Sonting (Tag.)

Ringworm bush or shrub (Engl.)

 

What is Akapulko?

Akapulko is used an herbal medicine and is a shrub that grows wild in the tropical climate of Philippines. Akapulko is widely used in the Philippines as herbal medicine. The akapulko leaves contain chrysophanic acid, a fungicide that is used to treat fungal infections, like ringworms, scabies and eczema. Akapulko leaves are also known to be sudorific, diuretic and purgative, used to treat intestinal problems including intestinal parasites. Akapulko is also used as herbal medicine to treat bronchitis and asthma. Because of Akapulko’s anti-fungal properties, it is a common ingredient in soaps, shampoos, and lotions in the Philippines. The Philippine Council for Health Research and Development (PCHRD) has helped develop the technology for akapulko herbal medicine lotion.

 

Family

Leguminosae

 

Botany

Akapulko is an erect, shrubby legume with dark green compound leaves attached to stout branches. Akapulko leaves have orange rachis that has 16-28 leaflets. Akapulko produces an axis of golden yellow flowers that has 4-winged pods containing 50-60 flattened, triangular seeds. Akapulko flowers are enclosed by yellow-orange bracts that are later shed in time.

 

Constituents

Chrysophanic acid (chrysophanol); oxymethyl anthraquinone, 2.2%; aloe-emodin; rhein; cassiaxanthone; tannins; saponins; alkaloids. 

 

Distribution

Sporadic in open wastelands near watery areas. Propagated rapidly by seeds (dispersed by waters) or stem cuttings. Basal stem may produce coppices (suckers). Seeds from mature pods can be collected during the season and immediately planted or stored for six months.

 

Ecological Distribution

Native to South America, now distributed throughout the tropics; abundantly naturalized in South East Asia, and occasionally planted throughout the region for medicinal and ornamental purposes.


Herbal Medicine for Skin Disease

Akapulko is used as herbal medicine for the following skin diseases:

  • Tinea infections,
  • insect bites,
  • ringworms,
  • eczema,
  • scabies and
  • itchiness.

v      Preparation and application of Akapulko herbal medicine:

Pound Akapulko leaves, squeeze the juice and apply topically on affected area twice a day until cured. There are commercially available Akapulko herbal medicine lotions in the Philippine market for skin diseases treatment. If symptoms persist or irritation occurs, stop the use and consult your doctor.

 

Herbal Medicine for Stomach Problems

Akapulko is used as herbal medicine for the following stomach problems:

  • laxative to expel intestinal parasites,
  • diuretic,
  • purgative,
  • strong decoction of leaves are also known to cause abortion in pregnant women.

v      Preparation and application of Akapulko herbal medicine for treatment of stomach problems:

Pound or cut a cup of Akapulko seeds, Akapulko leaves and flowers into manageable sizes then let it seep in boiling water for 10 to 15 minutes to creat an Akapulko herbal tea.  Let it cool and drink a cup three times a day. The potency of Akapulko herbal tea is good to last for one day. Make new Akapulko herbal tea as needed. When symptoms persist or irritation occurs stop the use and consult your doctor.

 

Herbal Medicine for Lung and Mouth Problems

Akapulko is used as herbal medicine for the following lung and mouth problems:

  • expectorant for bronchitis and dyspnea,
  • mouthwash in stomatitis,
  • alleviation of asthma symptoms.


 

v      Preparation and application of Akapulko herbal medicine for lung and mouth problems:

Ø      As expectorant and for the alleviation of asthma attacks, drink a cup of Akapulko herbal medicine tea (see above for the preparation) three times a day until symptoms improved.

Ø      For the treatment of mouth infections such as stomatitis, gargle the Akapulko herbal tea three times a day until symptoms improve.

If symptoms persist and irritation occurs, stop the use and consult your doctor.

 

PREPARATION OF ALKAPULKO HERBAL OINTMENT

There are two methods for preparing ointments:  the cold process and the hot process.  Both produce standard ointments and are easy to perform.  They differ from one another in more ways than just the temperature.  Note the differences as you go through the procedure.

 

The Cold Process:

Materials: fresh chopped akapulko leaves, 95% ethyl alcohol, glass jar with cover, strainer, shallow bowl, white petroleum, mortar and pestle/mixing bowl and spoon, ointment jars, labels.

 

Procedure:

1.  Macerate/soak the leaves in ethyl alcohol in a glass jar for at least 3 days.  Cover and set aside.  Add more alcohol to keep the leaves always immersed in the alcohol. 

2.  On the 4th day, filter the extract through a clean piece of cheesecloth/filter paper.

3.  Using a water bath (in a big kettle with water, place your enamel “tabo” containing the extract) and under medium heat evaporate the solvent (the ethyl alcohol) until you get a thick, concentrated extract.

4. Upon reaching the desired consistency, remove the extract from the water bath.

5. Mix thick extract with the white petrolatum in a 15% proportion (15 grams/1 tablespoon extract for every 100 grams of white petrolatum) until the extract is blended well with the petrolatum.

 6. Transfer the akapulko ointment in the desired containers. Label properly.

 

 

  The Hot Process :

Materials: fresh chopped leaves, vegetable oil, candle (Sperma #5), frying pan, strainer, ointment jars, labels

Proportion:

 

1 cup fresh chopped leaves: 1 cup vegetable oil, 2 candles, grated.

  Procedure:

Wash fresh leaves of Akapulko thoroughly and cut in small pieces.

  1. Add one cup of vegetable oil to one cup of cut fresh leaves.
  2. Fry until crispy.
  3. Remove from the heat; strain and cool.
  4. Discard the leaves.
  5. Grate 2 white candles (Esperma No. 5).
  6. In a clay or glass pot, pour the strained oil together with the grated candle pieces; stir over low heat until the candle has melted.
  7. Pour the mixture into a clean container; cover when cool.
  8. Apply the Akapulko herbal ointment to affected areas twice daily.